Glossary › L

Air tipper

Tipping equipment utilises the air braking system of the tractor unit. Limited usage due to lower operation control and higher weight and cost. Only tip to 2 sides. Earlier models up to 8 tonne and to 3 sides.

Cargo control plan

Known as LVP. Cargo control is becoming ever more important in the transport industry. Vehicles which transport particular goods must have a cargo control certificate e.g. for the drinks industry. The legal basis for the certification refer to paragraphs StVZO 31, STVO 22 and 23, VBG 12, HGB 412 and VDI 2700 ff.

Ladder frame

Removable frame on a car trailer bulkhead that permits transport of long materials at an angle.

Ladder rail

Found on the side of tank vehicle ladders – required and defined by safety regulations.


Access ladders – often found at rear of many vehicles.

Landing legs

Semi-trailers have a pair of landing legs behind the king-pin to support the front of the trailer when unhitched. The legs are winched up before travel. Folding legs are also available for semi-trailers used for rail transport.


Electrical cable between tractor unit and trailer.


Leading German manufacturer of all types of wheel rims.

Lift and lower device

A device used with air suspension to lift and lower a trailer deck e.g. to suit loading bays or to demount bodies.


Drop-side system from the manufacturer Zikun whereby the drop-side may be used as a horizontal lift.


Telescopic trailers used for quick handling of containers.

Lifting aid for drop-sides

Spring lifting aids for heavy tilt drop-sides.

Lifting axle

One or more air suspended axles may be lifted – especially used for tipping semi-trailers. Increases the pressure on the rear axle of the tractor unit.

Lifting axle

Axles that can be lifted by airbags automatically or by hand to reduce wear during empty transport.

Lifting bolt

Component used for skips and demountable containers.

Lifting bracket

Component used for skips and demountable containers.

Light carrier

Rear underrun with recess for lights.

Light metal

Lightweight materials are being used more and more for vehicle building e.g. all aluminium trailers. Lightweight steels are also used.

Light metal bodies

Aluminium bodies.

Light panel

Vehicle roofs may have a translucent section which allows light into the body e.g. grp panel in box body or clear tilt material.

Light panel

Vehicle roofs may have a translucent section which allows light into the body e. g. grp panel in box body or clear tilt material.


General term for rear trailer lights with 3 or 5 chambers : light, brake, indicator, reverse and fog.

Lightweight chassis

Lightweight chassis – usually aluminium.

Linear datum

Term used on trailer suspension diagrams.

Lipped seals

Seals with multiple lips for sealing rear doors. Extensively used for refrigerated vehicles.

Liquid gas

Also called cryogenic gas. Gas transported in tank semi-trailers at very low temperatures. Tank is usually made from V4A steel which has special strength characteristics.


Abbreviation for German Foodstuffs Hygiene Regulations.

Load arm extension

Load arms may be extended e.g. for putting vehicle bodies or swap bodies on the carrying chassis.

Load beams

Used to support second decks in vehicle bodies. Fitted to tracks in the side walls.

Load capacity

Term for the load that a vehicle can carry.

Load height

The distance from the ground to top of the vehicle floor.

Load maintaining valve

Valve maintains constant pressure in hydraulic systems e.g. tippers, cranes, etc.

Load Master 700.7

New side post range from manufacturer Hesterberg.

Load platform, low-loader platform

See “Load carrier”; load platforms may assume different forms when adapted to the cargo.

Load protection

Concertina sliding roof for semi-trailers from the Dutch manufacturer Knapen.

Load sensing

Automatic load sensing system for brakes in relation to axle load.

Load sensor

Brake system component that registers vehicle weight.

Load setting

Semi-trailer landing legs have several settings, one of that allows the loaded vehicle to be lifted.

Load spread

Load spread can be even or uneven. Even load spread usually involves higher load than uneven load spread. Ride characteristics are affected by uneven load spread. Extreme care is required with high point loads.

Load trough

Trough in the floor of low loaders for carrying equipment e. g. an excavator bucket or similar.

Loadable turntable

For example for transport of long materials, used as turntable and cargo carrying component.

Loading angle

Angle in degrees of loading ramps.

Loading lamp

Lamp used to illuminate a load space e.g. often fitted to the rear of vehicle cabs.

Loading ramp

Hinged rear wall can be folded down and used as a vehicle loading ramp.

Loading ramps

Loading ramps used for motor bike transport trailers.

Loading ramps

Usually required for low bed vehicle transporters. Can be found fixed, lose, liftable and in horizontable position.

Loading wedges

Low loaders may carry wedges that are demountable and used as loading ramps.

Location skids

Angled components on the base of skip vehicles that help position the skip centrally on the vehicle.

Lockbolt pins and collars

Fastening system often used in preference to welding on chassis frames.

Long goods trailer

Trailer with u-shaped cargo control posts that can be clamped at different positions along the vehicle length. The front posts are fitted to a turntable that is connected to the main chassis frame. Used for transport of long timbers.

Long haul construction

General term for vehicles which are fitted out for long distance transport.

Long timber

Tree trunks, bridge elements, finished building components, etc. can be transported on a semi-trailer that is extendable and may have a steering rear axle. Semi-trailer usually requires special approval.

Low bed loader

Flat low bed loader.

Low bed tipping trailer

A tipper that is built as low as possible so that it can also be used as a low loader. Usually used as a tandem trailer up to 18 tonne total weight.

Low bed trailer

General term for trailers with low load decks but usually refer to low-bed loaders with ramps for moving construction equipment.

Low bed trailer axles

Special axles with very small brake drum diameter (ca 300mm) for vehicles with extremely low load decks.

Low coupling

Trailers that are coupled lower than usual ca 750-850 mm. The coupling is usually positioned far under the truck near the rear axle that gives the alternative expression ‘under coupled’. Such coupling allows the distance between truck and trailer body to be as small as possible because the pivot point is moved. The available load deck length can be considerably longer than for conventionally coupled vehicles.

Low deck

A low-lying load deck between front and rear axles of a low loader trailer. May be hydraulically raised/lowered to provide one level load deck. Lowered when loaded.

Low friction suspension

Springs which have space between the leaves and a slightly curved bearing surface at the ends which ensures low wear and are held front and rear in hanger brackets. Used for many years by Kögel.

Low trailer

Car trailers which have the wheels beside rather than under the load deck which allows the deck to be as low as possible.

Low under coupling

A jumbo road train can only achieve maximum internal volume when the distance between truck and trailer bodies is as small as possible. To achieve this the trailer must have a long low-lying drawbar that is coupled under the truck behind the rear axle.

Lowering equipment

Air suspension equipment used to lower the chassis e.g. to ensure a solid foundation when tipping or to further lower the deck of low loaders. Usually fitted together with lift equipment to level trailer at loading bays.


May be standard nipple lubrication, central lubrication or cartridge lubrication.

Luton front

Bodywork extension over driver’s cab which can for example be used as a sleeping area or to increase cargo capacity.